Turkish Journal of Chemistry




Nowadays, it has become very popular to develop wearable devices that can monitor biomarkers to analyze the health status of the human body more comprehensively and accurately. Wearable sensors, specially designed for home care services, show great promise with their ease of use, especially during pandemic periods. Scientists have conducted many innovative studies on new wearable sensors that can noninvasively and simultaneously monitor biochemical indicators in body fluids for disease prediction, diagnosis, and management. Using noninvasive electrochemical sensors, biomarkers can be detected in tears, saliva, perspiration, and skin interstitial fluid (ISF). In this review, biofluids used for noninvasive wearable sensor detection under four main headings, saliva, sweat, tears, and ISF-based wearable sensors, were examined in detail. This report analyzes nearly 50 recent articles from 2017 to 2023. Based on current research, this review also discusses the evolution of wearable sensors, potential implementation challenges, and future prospects.


Biosensor, tattoo sensors, healthcare monitoring, wearable sensors, biofluids

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