Turkish Journal of Chemistry




Arsenic is a hazardous element that causes environmental pollution. Due to its toxicological effects, it is crucial to quantify and minimize the hazardous impact on the ecology. Despite the significant advances in analytical techniques, sample preparation is still crucial for determining target analytes in complex matrices. Several factors affect the direct analysis, such as trace-level analysis, advanced regulatory requirements, complexity of sample matrices, and incompatible with analytical instrumentation. Along with the development in the sample preparation process, microextraction methods play an essential role in the sample preparation process. Microextraction techniques (METs) are the newest green approach that replaces traditional sample preparation and preconcentration methods. METs have minimized the limitation of conventional sample preparation methods while keeping all their benefits. METs improve extraction efficacy, are fast, automated, use less amount of solvents, and are suitable for the environment. Microextraction techniques with less solvent consumption, such as solid phase microextraction (SPME) solvent-free methods, and liquid phase microextraction (LPME), are widely used in modern analytical procedures. SPME development focuses on synthesizing new sorbents and applying online sample preparation, whereas LPME research investigates the utilization of new solvents.


Arsenic, sample preparation, preconcentration, solid-phase microextraction, liquid-phase microextraction

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