Turkish Journal of Chemistry




Bioactive compounds in medicinal plants are more susceptible to preventing oxidative stress. Encapsulation of herbal extracts has empowered the properties and characteristics of bioactive compounds. Nanoencapsulation allows the enhancement of the stability of extracts and targeted drug delivery. The present study aims to determine the antioxidant activity of alginate nanoparticles encapsulating the aqueous extract of Coccinia grandis L. (Family: Cucurbitaceae). The aqueous extract of C. grandis (AqCG) was prepared by using ultrasonication (40 ° C, 20 min, 40 kHz) followed by refluxing (2½ h). The prepared AqCG (1-5 mg/mL) encapsulated alginate nanoparticles were synthesized by ionic gelation with the addition of extracts and CaCl2 . Characterization of nanoparticles was performed via encapsulation efficiency (EE%), loading capacity (LC%), particle size (PS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. The antioxidant activity of the nanoparticles was evaluated in vitro by the ferric reducing antioxidant (FRAP) assay, 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's posthoc test was used to analyze the data. Maximum LC% (3.07 ± 0.11) and average particle size (71 nm from SEM) were obtained for alginate nanoparticles encapsulated at 4 mg/mL extract concentration. The IC50 values for DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP were 6.49 ± 0.10 mg/mL, 0.24 ± 0.01 mg/mL, and 20.63 ± 0.28 mg Trolox equivalent/g of extract respectively for alginate nanoparticles encapsulating the AqCG. Nanoparticles have shown a significant difference in IC50 values compared to Trolox (p < 0.05). The successful encapsulation of the AqCG in the alginate matrix was evidenced by FTIR and SEM analysis. Encapsulation contributed to enhancing the antioxidant activity in terms of ABTS assay when compared to the AqCG. However, in vitro release and stability studies are warranted to facilitate the development of a commercially viable nanonutraceutical using alginate nanoparticles encapsulating the AqCG.


Antioxidant activity, Coccinia grandis, encapsulation, nanoparticles

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