Turkish Journal of Chemistry




Turkey is the world?s leading producer of figs, a typical Mediterranean fruit. The fig, Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), has been widely cultivated since ancient times due to the nutritional value of its fruits. It was aimed to investigate the phytochemical characterization and biological properties of F. carica leaf extracts in order to determine their potential for use in the treatment of various diseases. F. carica leaves were extracted in 70% methanol at 40 °C under reflux. To obtain extracts of different polarities, the crude extract was fractionated with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and n-butanol. Phenolic content was determined using liquid chromatography?high resolution mass spectrometry (LC?HRMS). 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and antityrosinase activities of all extracts were investigated using spectrophotometric methods. Furthermore, the DNA-damage protective properties of extracts were investigated using electrophoretic methods. The n-butanol extract was found to have the highest total phenolic content, with 72.58 ± 4.52 mg GAE/g dry weight. According to LC?HRMS analysis, rutin (40.13 g/kg) was the most abundant compound in the n-butanol extract. The n-butanol extract, which was found to have the highest tyrosinase inhibitory effects among the extracts, demonstrated radical scavenging activity of 37.01 ± 1.15% and 82.57 ± 0.88% at 80 and 200 ?g/mL, respectively. The n-butanol extract had the highest protective effects against Fenton?s reagent, UV radiation, and singlet oxygen. Given these findings, it is possible to argue that F. carica leaves can be evaluated for developing products that could be used to treat various diseases.


F. carica, LC-HRMS, plasmid pBR322 DNA, rutin, tyrosinase inhibitory

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