Turkish Journal of Chemistry




A humic substance was obtained from hazelnut husk using an alkali extraction. The chemical and morphological structure of the humic matter was characterized via elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric-FTIR (TG-FTIR). In addition, thermal analysis measurements TG analysis-differential thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DTG/ DSC) were performed under dynamic air conditions to better determine the origin, physical and chemical structure, and decomposition process of the humic matter. The Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) methods were used to calculate the kinetic parameters of the high-temperature decomposition process. It was observed that the activation energy values were almost constant at certain conversion and temperature intervals. In addition, the structure of the humic substance at different temperatures was also investigated via FTIR analysis. It was found that the obtained humic substance had a very stable structure and decomposed at a high temperature. The stability of the humic matter can be a useful tool in the environmental quality research of soil.


Hazelnut husk, humic substance, thermal decomposition, TG-DTG/DSC analysis, kinetic analysis

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