Turkish Journal of Chemistry




Lard is defined as animal fat acquired from the adipose tissue of pigs and is not permitted for human consumption or external use by certain religions such as Islam and Judaism. Due to its low-cost availability for commercial use, it is often mixed with other vegetable oils mistakenly or deliberately and causes loss of consumer trust; hence, its detection in food products is essential. Consumers tend to know the authenticity of commercially available edible oils. However, edible oils are subjected to adulteration risks with lard, which breaches consumer rights. In the present study, we designed a transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)-based method for the rapid detection of lard in sunflower, canola, coconut, olive, and mustard oils. For this purpose, the selected oils were adulterated with lard in different concentration ratios (10:0, 9:1, 7:3, 6:4, 4:6, 3:7, 0:10). A single calibration model was developed for 35 standards (seven standards from each individual five oils) in the frequency range between 1078.01 and 1246.75 cm$^{-1}$ to determine the relationship between actual adulterant concentration and FT-IR predicted concentrations using a partial least squares (PLS) method. The results of the present study indicated that FT-IR in combination with PLS has the potential to evaluate adulteration of edible oils with lard through single calibration as a rapid, nondestructive, and effective alternative method.


Edible oils, lard, detection, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

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