Turkish Journal of Chemistry






One of the most vital chemicals, which is not only found naturally but can also be synthesized in the laboratory, is formic acid (FA). FA is a key byproduct of several second-generation biorefinery processes as well, and it is used in several pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Recently, another significant use of FA that is taking the lead is as a form of fuel. This could either involve reformation, as a possible form of chemical hydrogen storage, or be done without reformation in the form of FA fuel cells, in particular because FA fuel cells are much more effective than other proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. Therefore, FA is a highly useful fuel for applications such as vehicles and portable devices. This review is based on recent developments and processes, showing that FA should become a prominent reversible source for hydrogen storage. Recent developments should permit a cheap and extremely effective source of rechargeable hydrogen fuel cells in the future. This will be possible through the usage of appropriate heterogeneous metal nanoparticle catalysts under ideal reaction conditions. The most significant aspect will be the usage of atmospheric CO$_{2}$, which is a greenhouse gas, to develop FA, as that would help to reduce the quantity of CO$_{2}$ in the atmosphere and diminish global warming.

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