Turkish Journal of Chemistry




A pencil graphite electrode (PGE) was used for the simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid (AA), norepinephrine (NE), and uric acid (UA) by differential pulse voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. The anodic peaks of AA, NE, and UA in their mixture can be well separated in 0.1 M Britton--Robinson buffer solution at pH 4.0. The effects of various experimental parameters such as pH, scan rate, and voltammetric parameters on the voltammetric response of these compounds were investigated. Under optimum conditions, linear calibration graphs were obtained from the AA, NE, and UA concentration ranges, which were 100-800 nM, 20-170 nM, and 40-175 nM, respectively. The detection limits for AA, NE, and UA were 27 nM, 4 nM, and 10 nM in the form of a mixture at the PGE. This electrode shows great analytical performance characteristics, corresponding repeatability and recovery for the simultaneous determination of these compounds. PGE, which was used for the first time in this method, has been successfully applied for the assay of UA in human urine samples with the aim of determining AA and NE in pharmaceutical drugs.


Pencil graphite electrode, ascorbic acid, norepinephrine, uric acid, simultaneous

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