Turkish Journal of Chemistry




A facile route was used for the fabrication of NdFeO$_{3}$ (NF) perovskite. The orthorhombic structure of single phase nanocrystalline NdFeO$_{3}$ perovskite was confirmed by different characterization techniques: XRD, FTIR, TEM, BET, SEM, and EDAX. The nanoperovskite was successfully used as a sensor component with a carbon paste electrode (CpE) for the determination of ketotifen in pharmaceutical formulations. Ketotifen, an antiallergic drug, is utilized for the treatment of asthma attacks, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was employed in a surface assembly mode to improve the sensitivity of the sensor response. The proposed sensor, NdFeO$_{3}$ in situ modified carbon paste electrode in the presence of SDS (NFMCpE-SDS), showed a higher current response towards ketotifen oxidation compared to other surfaces. The enhanced signal response is attributed to the catalytic properties of the sensor and the relative increase in surface area. A linear relationship between the oxidation peak current and ketotifen concentration was obtained in the concentration range of 0.8 $\mu $mol L$^{-1}$ to 360 $\mu $mol L$^{-1}$. The surface showed long-term stability of 1 month of operation and the limits of detection and quantification of ketotifen were 2.92 nmol L$^{-1}$ and 9.71 nmol L$^{-1}$, respectively, with high sensitivity of 311 $\mu $A/mmol L$^{-1}$. The composite electrode proved to be selective for drug sensing in the presence of different interfering species and applicable for drug determination in commercial tablets, human serum, and urine.


NdFeO$_{3}$, carbon paste electrode, ketotifen, surface active agent, real sample analysis

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