Turkish Journal of Biology




Deep learning is a powerful machine learning technique that can learn from large amounts of data using multiple layers of artificial neural networks. This paper reviews some applications of deep learning in bioinformatics, a field that deals with analyzing and interpreting biological data. We first introduce the basic concepts of deep learning and then survey the recent advances and challenges of applying deep learning to various bioinformatics problems, such as genome sequencing, gene expression analysis, protein structure prediction, drug discovery, and disease diagnosis. We also discuss future directions and opportunities for deep learning in bioinformatics. We aim to provide an overview of deep learning so that bioinformaticians applying deep learning models can consider all critical technical and ethical aspects. Thus, our target audience is biomedical informatics researchers who use deep learning models for inference. This review will inspire more bioinformatics researchers to adopt deep-learning methods for their research questions while considering fairness, potential biases, explainability, and accountability.


Deep learning, bioinformatics, neural networks, biological data analysis

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