Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences




The wireless sensor networks (WSN) are comprised of hundreds to thousands of compact and battery-operated sensor nodes. The deployed sensor nodes are widely used to sense the physical changes in the environment,which collect, aggregate, and transmit the information as data packets or static sink or monitoring station. Thedata transmission is very challenging under some extreme environments and applications. The efficient way of datatransmission is achieved by designing an energy-efficient routing protocol. The position of the sink nodes is broadcasted periodically to all other sensor nodes to forward the sensed data to the monitoring system or sink. The frequentbroadcasting of the sink position of the sink will lead to the consumption of more energy and collision in networks. Inorder to overcome these issues, the new energy-efficient virtual infrastructure based routing protocol has been proposed inthis paper. This proposed energy-efficient geo-nested routing protocol with a modified virtual multiring structure is usedto update and forward the sensed information. The proposed algorithm comprises of two phases: routing establishmentusing virtual infrastructure and data forwarding. During the first phase, the geo-nested virtual infrastructure constructedto form a closed-loop structure to identify the effective router nodes to route the data. This stage will minimize thenumber of hops based on depth threshold values. In the second phase of the algorithm, the links are formed during thelast stages are changed dynamically based on the sink mobility and energy levels. This will achieve the energy balanceand significantly improves the network lifetime of wireless sensor networks. The simulated results of the proposed routingalgorithm show that the energy consumption, impact of sink mobility, and end to end delay metrics are comparativelybetter than the existing routing protocol algorithms.


Wireless sensor networks, energy efficient routing protocol, virtual ring based infrastructure, geo-nestedrouting, performance metrics, energy consumption, end to end delay

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