Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences




Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the deadliest diseases which cannot be treated but can be kept under control in certain stages. COPD has five severities, including at-risk, mild, moderate, severe, and very severe stages. Diagnosis of COPD at early stages needs additional clinical tests for even experienced specialists. The study aims at detecting the severity of the COPD to start treatment for preventing the progression of the disease to the next levels. We analyzed 12-channel lung sounds with different COPD severities from RespiratoryDatabase@TR. The lung sounds were recorded from the clinical auscultation points from 41 patients on posterior (chest) and anterior (back) sides. 3D second-order difference plot was applied to extract characteristic abnormalities on lung sounds. Cuboid and octant-based quantizations were utilized to extract characteristic abnormalities on chaos plot. Deep extreme learning machines classifier (deep ELM), which is one of the most stable and fast deep learning algorithms, was utilized in the classification stage. Novel HessELM and LuELM autoencoder kernels were adapted to deep ELM and reached higher generalization capabilities with a faster training speed against the conventional ELM autoencoder. The proposed deep ELM model with LuELM autoecoder has separated five COPD severities with classification performance rates of 94.31%, 94.28%, 98.76%, and 0.9659 for overall accuracy, weighted-sensitivity, weighted-specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) value, respectively. The proposed deep analysis of 12-channel lung sounds provides a standardized and entire lung assessment for identification of COPD severity. Our study is a pioneering approach that directly focuses on lung sounds. Novel deep ELM kernels have performed a higher generalization and fast training compared to conventional kernels.


Deep ELM, RespiratoryDatabase@TR, deep learning, ELM autoencoder, COPD severity

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