High end-to-end delay is a major challenge in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV)-aided routing protocols for underwater monitoring applications. In this paper, a new routing protocol called atomic-shaped efficient delay and data gathering (ASEDG) has been introduced for underwater wireless sensor networks. The ASEDG is divided into two phases; in the first phase, the atomic-shaped trajectory model with horizontal and vertical ellipticals was designed for the movement of the AUV. In the second phase, two types of delay models were considered to make our protocol more delay efficient: member nodes (MNs) to MNs and MNs to gateway nodes (GNs). The MNs-to-MNs delay in the network specifies how long is required for the selection of the next possible forwarders by eliminating the chances of backtracking and a higher number of association links. The MNs-to-GNs delay is considered to choose the path from a multipath environment that takes a minimum amount of time for sending the packet from its generation to destination node. For efficient data gathering, this new trajectory model creates the maximum possible GNs for the association of the MNs. Furthermore, our protocol, ASEDG, has been evaluated by using the aquasim network simulator (NS-2), and its results were compared with the already existing protocol, an efficient data gathering (AEDG) routing protocol. The simulation results show that the ASEDG performed better than the AEDG in terms of end-to-end delay and throughput.
FAROOQ, WAJIHA; ALI, TARIQ; SHAF, AHMAD; UMAR, MUHAMMAD; and YASIN, SANA
"Atomic-shaped efficient delay and data gathering routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks,"
Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences: Vol. 27:
5, Article 14.
Available at: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/elektrik/vol27/iss5/14