Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences




controllable loads and tending to the demand response (DR) in small power systems have helped with new ideas, which can be used in the frequency stability of a microgrid. This paper presents a novel model for frequency control of a microgrid containing controllable load and renewable resources. The controllable loads used in this paper are such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, which change temperature based on frequency change. The microgrid is hybrid (AC/DC) and able to connect to and energy exchange with the utility grid. The design of PID controller parameters is considered an optimization problem according to the time domain-based objective function solved by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller are demonstrated through nonlinear time-domain simulation. Finally, for the simulation and analysis, the output results have been presented and studied.

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