Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences




Multimedia security has been the focal point of considerable research activity in the last decade, mainly because of its wide application area. Watermarking, in particular, is identified as a major technology to achieve copyright protection and multimedia security. Therefore, recent studies in the literature include some evident approaches for embedding data into a multimedia element. Because of its useful frequency component separation, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is commonly used in watermarking schemes. Moreover, singular value decomposition (SVD) and lower-and-upper (LU) decomposition have little effect on the perception of the watermark. Therefore, in this study, a combination of DWT and SVD via LU decomposition is proposed as a new nonblind watermarking algorithm that requires cover work to detect the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is considerably robust and reliable against certain attacks without degrading the input image, by embedding a binary watermark on the low-low band. Moreover, the threshold values are data-dependent for watermarks after attacks; that is, the threshold value is always different from another for certain attacks so that similarity ratios in this algorithm, as a quality metric, are much more than those of the other algorithms consisting of DWT and/or SVD despite strong attacks causing lower peak signal-to-noise ratio values. Apart from robustness, reliability, and data-dependence, the other novel aspect of this study is to expand the application areas of watermarking with a new algorithm consisting of DWT, LU, and SVD, and this study will contribute to the literature for certain cases.


Multimedia security, digital image watermarking, discrete wavelet transform, singular value decomposition, lower and upper decomposition, peak signal-to-noise ratio, similarity ratio, nonblind watermarking

First Page


Last Page