Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences




Propagation modeling and simulation approaches for the use of High Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR) are discussed. HFSWR uses vertically polarized surface waves along multi-mixed paths in the lower HF band (3 MHz - 15 MHz). Various numerical propagators are reviewed with an early analytical model. Split Step Fast Fourier Transformation, finite- difference, and finite-element solutions of the well-known one-way, forward propagation Parabolic Equation (PE) model are presented. MATLAB-based numerical propagation prediction tools based on these models are listed. Tests and comparisons among these analytical and numerical tools are given for some canonical surface wave propagation scenarios. The Millington effect for both smooth and irregular terrain paths, which contain land-sea and sea-land transitions, is also discussed.


Groundwaves, Surface waves, High Frequency, High Frequency Surface Wave Radar, Mixed-Path Propagation, Millington Effect, Path Loss, Parabolic Equation, Finite-Difference Method, Finite Element Method, Split-Step PE Method, Impedance Boundary Condition, Hilly Island Effects.

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