Costas arrays are used in RADAR (and SONAR) engineering to represent frequency-hopping patterns that optimize the RADAR's performance. In this work, using all available Costas arrays up to and including order 26, as well as data mining techniques, we investigate how the Costas property and the balance of signs in the difference triangle of a permutation are related. Our conclusion is that there is sufficient evidence to believe that the mechanism responsible for the formation of Costas arrays changes from low to high orders.
DRAKAKIS, KONSTANTINOS (2007) "Data Mining and Costas Arrays," Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences: Vol. 15: No. 1, Article 5. Available at: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/elektrik/vol15/iss1/5