Turkish Journal of Botany




Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV, Orthotospovirus tomatomaculae) resistance genes (Tsw, Sw5) have been identified in pepper and tomato plants. The development of resistant cultivars is one of the popular management strategies for overcoming viral infections. However, the breakdown of resistance genes has been documented from many places where resistant cultivars have been developed. This has mainly been due to the emergence of resistance-breaking (RB) lines because of the consecutive use of these cultivars. The development of these isolates may cause great losses in both tomato and pepper plants in Türkiye. To investigate the incidence of TSWV, 150 symptomatic samples were collected from widespread locations of tomato and pepper growing provinces in Türkiye. Samples were inoculated to enhance the virus titer and further confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA positive samples were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) and CAPS markers were used to screen resistance genes in tomato and pepper plants. Positive TSWV-isolates were partially sequenced to determine whether they had the previously reported mutations in NSs or NSm genes for RB isolates. As per the virus characterization, NSm and NSs amino acid sequences showed no previously identified mutations. Resistance gene-carrying isolates were amplified for partial genome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that both NSs and NSm were distributed in the same genetic pool. The N gene sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that the Turkish isolates were clustered in a separate clade. These findings provide insight into TSWV infections and resistance genes of pepper and tomato by phylogenetic analysis.


Tomato, pepper, resistance, molecular marker, movement protein, silencing suppressor protein

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