Turkish Journal of Botany




his study examined the effect of biochar application to the soil at different times on the phytochemical composition (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, vitamin C, sugars, proteins, MDA, and antioxidant activity) and expression of HCT, F3’H and CHS genes (which are involved in the accumulation of phenolic compounds) in cabbage kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala). Biochar was prepared from chicken manure, using the method of rapid pyrolysis at a temperature of 400 °C. The retention time at the maximum temperature was 4 h, and the heating rate was 10 °C min–1. The biochar fertilizer was applied to 5–7 day-old kale seedlings at planting in one variant, and in the second experimental variant it was added 1 month after the seedlings were sown. The results demonstrated that the biochar had a greater effect on the content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carotenoids, antioxidant activity, and sugars on the 16-week-old plants when it was added at the time of planting. Early biochar treatment stimulated an 80-fold increase in HCT gene expression, a 17-fold increase in F3’H gene expression, and a nearly 22-fold increase in CHS gene expression. Late biochar treatment stimulated a roughly 22-fold increase in HCT gene transcripts, a 23-fold increase in F3’H gene transcripts, and a 16-fold increase in CHS gene transcripts in kale. Thus, these experiments once again convincingly prove that treatment of kale with biochar during planting is more effective in stimulating the production of healthpromoting compounds.


Brassica oleracea L. var acephala, biochar, phytochemical composition, HPLC, expression genes

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