Acclimation of plants to their environment involves mechanisms at all molecular levels and only the complete temporal and spatial pattern adequately describes the acclimation state. The diversity of physiological states realized in plants increases by the essentially infinite combinations of abiotic and biotic stresses, considering duration, impact order, and strength. The interference between stressors involves phenomena of synergism, antagonism, and indifference. This review exemplarily sketches principles of interference considering posttranslational modifications, the formation of molecular assemblies in regulosomes, the regulation of gene expression, and the vast number of other posttranscriptional controls e.g., in RNA processing and recruitment to ribosomes. Small molecules such as hormones, reactive molecular species as ROS, ions, and metabolites are decisive players in this network. Available methodology for global analysis combined with machine learning approaches offers a perspective to identify the central regulatory modules, particularly if the multiple layers of molecular regulation are included in parallel, and to better understand the underlying mechanisms of stress interference in an unbiased manner.
"Synergism and antagonism in plant acclimation to abiotic stress combinations,"
Turkish Journal of Botany: Vol. 45:
7, Article 1.
Available at: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/botany/vol45/iss7/1