Turkish Journal of Botany




Excessive accumulation of salts is one of the most important factors affecting the production quality of plants. The difficulty to develop salt stress tolerant crops has prevented the security of the global food system. The classical crop breeding approach that uses random mutagenesis/recombination is time-consuming in the face of an ever-increasing human population and extreme weather pattern shifts. Today, technologies introducing foreign genetic material into plants have the best potential to assist in crop breeding improvement due to its high efficiency, accuracy, low risk of off-target effects, and minimal labour compared to classical methods. The notion of Na+/H+ antiporters in this technology has increased rapidly in recent years with numerous successful examples. In the awe of rapidly developing modern techniques, which do not yet exist at the required scale to face the aforementioned challenges, the current knowledge of the co/overexpressing Na+/H+ antiporters (NHX1 and SOS1) will be explored as a potential method to produce staple crops with greater resilience to over concentrated ions and abnormally high osmotic stress.


Arabidopsis, multiple ectopic gene expression, salt stress, gene pyramiding, sodium/proton antiporter

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