Turkish Journal of Botany




Flow cytometry measurement confirmed the genetic stability of Primula veris L. (cowslip) plants obtained during the micropropagation process. The mean 2C DNA content was 0.97 pg/2C and P. veris can be classified in the group of plants of very small genomes. Comparative morphological analysis of cowslip plants regenerated in vitro and derived from seeds was carried out in three subsequent years under common garden conditions, which limited the effects of environmental factors. The origin of specimens significantly influenced most of the morphological traits examined. Plants that originated from seeds were characterized by more intensive development rate and higher total seed production compared to micropropagated plants. Significant differences between the two groups of specimens were observed for the number of flower stalks, flowers, fruits, and seeds per plant. No interseasonal variation within the reproductive traits such as number of seeds per flower stalk and per plant was found for plants derived from in vitro cultures. That allows prediction of seed production from in vitro regenerated plants after their successful acclimatization to field conditions. Importantly, plants derived from in vitro cultures set significantly bigger seeds. Our results are promising for broad uses of the regenerated in vitro cowslip plants in ornamental horticulture and the pharmaceutical industry.


Cowslip, flow cytometry, fruit and seed-set, genome size, seed number, seed size, tissue culture

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