Turkish Journal of Botany




The barks of 4 Ficus species, namely F. racemosa, F. virens, F. religiosa and F. benghalensis, are important ingredients in many Ayurvedic and traditional formulations. The barks are considered to be very effective in various treatments, such as diabetes, skin diseases, ulcers, and nervous disorders. During market research, we observed that various species of Ficus barks were sold in Indian market under traditional names, such as Plaksah, Udumbarah, Asvatthah, and Vatah. The barks of the species mention above are usually interchanged or adulterated with other species of Ficus because of the limited knowledge in identification and differentiation. Therefore, a detailed comparative pharmacognostic evaluation of the 4 species has been carried out with the aim to establish the diagnostic keys of these important drugs based on the macroscopic, microscopic, and HPTLC profiles. Detailed diagnostic and distinctive characteristics for the differentiation of the 4 Ficus species are discussed.


Ficus racemosa, Ficus virens, Ficus religiosa, Ficus benghalensis, Moraceae, Bark, Pharmacognosy

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