Mount Kısır constitutes the study area; the northern and western parts are within the boundary of the Çıldır district (Ardahan), the southwestern part is within the boundary of Susuz and the eastern and southeastern parts are within the boundary of Arpacay (Kars). This place is the highest part of Northeastern Anatolia (3150 m) and lies within square A9. On Mount Kısır and in its environs, a continental climate prevails. In accordance with the climate, basaltic and chestnut brown soil prevails in the region. The study was carried out in the region in suitable periods between 1996 and 1999. During the study, about 800 plant specimens were identified and thus 60 families, 266 genera and 416 species, 119 subspecies and 43 varieties associated with them were determined, as they were considered distinct. The floristic regions of 44.8% of the collected plants are known. Of all the species, 22.5% are Irano-Turanian and 22.3% are Euro-Siberian, 10.2% of the last group being Euxine. The endemic rate is 5.4%. On Mount Kısır, the vegetation types are steppic rocky, alpine, shrub, wet meadow (hygrophilic) and marshy (hydrophytic), the most common of which is steppic vegetation.
OCAKVERDİ, HAYRETTİN (2001) "The Flora of the Mount Kısır (Kars and Ardahan) and Nearest Environs," Turkish Journal of Botany: Vol. 25: No. 5, Article 5. Available at: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/botany/vol25/iss5/5