Background: Androgen deprivation therapy remains the first-line therapy option for prostate cancer, mostly resulting in the transition of the disease to a castration-resistant state. The lack of androgen signaling during therapy affects various cellular processes, which sometimes paradoxically contributes to cancer progression. As androgen receptor (AR) signaling is known to contribute to oxidative stress regulation, loss of AR may also affect DNA damage level and the response mechanism in oxidant and inflammatory conditions of the prostate tumor microenvironment. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of AR and AR-regulated tumor suppressor NKX3.1 upon oxidative stress-induced DNA damage response (DDR) in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment of the prostate. Materials and methods: Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was induced by either inflammatory conditioned media obtained from lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages or oxidants and measured by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. In addition to this, DNA damage was subsequently quantified by counting gH2AX foci using an immunofluorescence-based Aklides platform. Altered expression of proteins function in DDR detected by western blotting. Results: Cellular levels of ROS and ROS-induced DNA double-strand break damage were analyzed in the absence and presence of AR signaling upon treatment of prostate cancer cells by either oxidants or inflammatory microenvironment exposure. The results showed that AR suppresses intracellular ROS and contributes to DNA damage recognition under oxidant conditions. Besides, increased DNA damage due to loss of NKX3.1 under inflammatory conditions was alleviated by its overexpression. Moreover, the activation of the DDR mediators caused by AR and NKX3.1 activation in androgen-responsive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells indicated that the androgen receptor function is essential both in controlling oxidative stress and in activating the ROS-induced DDR. Conclusion: Taken together, it is concluded that the regulatory function of androgen receptor signaling has a vital function in the balance between antioxidant response and DDR activation.
Prostate cancer, γH2AX, inflammation-induced carcinogenesis, reactive oxygen species, androgen receptor, NKX3.1
BÜTÜNER, BİLGE DEBELEÇ; HASBAL, NURŞAH ERTUNÇ; İŞEL, ELİF; ROGGENBUCK, DIRK; and KORKMAZ, KEMAL SAMİ
"Androgen receptor contributes to repairing DNA damage induced by inflammation and oxidative stress in prostate cancer,"
Turkish Journal of Biology: Vol. 47:
5, Article 4.
Available at: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/biology/vol47/iss5/4