Turkish Journal of Biology




Seeds, by-products derived from various plants such as mango, quince, and apples, are considered waste, though they have emerging commercial potential, and have been used in biological, industrial, and physiological research. Seed-derived natural macromolecules- mainly polysaccharides, mucilage, gums, and cellulose-have physicochemical and structural diversification, giving the potential for forming gels, texturing, thickening, and providing interfacial adsorption. Seed-derived natural macromolecules have been widely used during the last few years in cell research and tissue engineering applications. Their widespread approachability and safety, high rate of biodegradability, biocompatibility, supporting cell proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis are the main properties making plant seed derivatives appropriate for use. The gel-forming ability of these derivatives gives them the capability of creating natural polymer-based scaffolds with the aptitude to resemble extracellular matrices (ECM). These ECM exhibit the high potential in scaffolds for tissue renewal. A deeper knowledge of the physicochemical characteristics of seed-derived mucilage and gum has been indicated as a key ingredient in several pharmaceutical preparations, but it has been remarkably utilized in nanomedicine for the last few years as a drug carrier for drug delivery, in gene therapy, and as scaffold components for tissue engineering purposes. Here, we afford up-to-date data about the different extracts from plant seeds?mainly mucilage and gum, we summarize the extraction techniques used to isolate these macromolecules, and we focus on their application in scaffold fabrication for tissue engineering purposes and regenerative medicine applications.


Seed-extract, scaffolds, tissue engineering, natural macromolecules

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