Turkish Journal of Biology




To create new varieties resistant to biotic and abiotic stress factors that possess high productivity and improved fruit quality, breeders require modern breeding methods and techniques. Double haploid (DH) lines are an invaluable breeding element due to their guaranteed, completely homozygous nature. One of the fastest methods for obtaining DH lines is anther culture. Microspore embryogenesis provides considerable opportunities in the areas of breeding and biotechnology and represents a model system for fundamental biological research. The effectiveness of pepper anther culture is still low, which affects the application of DH lines in breeding programs. A detailed study of the anther culture process will produce a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the switch from gametophyte to sporophyte during embryo development. In this respect, the genes expressed during microspore embryogenesis and those that control the cellular response to stress have a key role. This review provides information about the control of embryo formation together with the features of practical application of pepper anther culture.


Embryogenesis, haploids, DHs, genes, plant breeding, androgenesis

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