Turkish Journal of Biology




The yield parameters and cost economics of Withania somnifera were studied using dual inoculation of Azotobacter chroococcum and Pseudomonas putida. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replications for 2 consecutive years, along with 2 levels of organic manure, 10 t ha^{-1} and 20 t ha^{-1}. Inoculation with the inoculants generated encouraging results; root yield (1185.6 kg ha^{-1}), seed yield (208.13 kg ha^{-1}), number of offshoots per plant (6.07), and plant height (108.4 cm) were maximum with treatment T6 (organic manure [OM] 20 t ha^{-1} + both bacteria), followed by T9 (OM 10 t ha^{-1} + both bacteria), T4 (OM 20 t ha^{-1} + A. chroococcum), and T5 (OM 20 t ha^{-1} + P. putida), as compared to T1 (control), T2 (OM 10 t ha^{-1}), and T3 (OM 20 t ha^{-1}). The survival count of inoculated bacteria was highest 70 days after inoculation and declined thereafter. Economic analysis revealed that the net profit from treatment T6 was the highest with dual inoculation of bacteria and OM 20 t ha^{-1}, followed by OM 10 t ha^{-1} and dual inoculation of bacteria.


Withania, A. chroococcum, P. putida, yield, economics

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