Turkish Journal of Zoology




Among phytophagous insects, the Heteroptera (Hemiptera), true bugs, are economically important because of damage crops by sucking plant organs and by transmitting plant pathogens. The diversity and distribution of Heteroptera species associated with fruits were investigated in hazelnut, cherry, and apple orchards in the crop season of Bolu and Düzce provinces from May 2015 to October 2016. The species were collected with a Steiner funnel from three fruit varieties from two provinces and for each area at different vegetation in the western Black Sea Region. The highest number of sucking bug species and the greatest diversity occurred on hazelnut. A total of 48 species belong to 12 families. 16 Miridae, 14 Pentatomidae, 5 Lygaeidae, 3 Ropalidae, 2 Coreidae, 2 Pyrrhocoridae, and 1 Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Nabidae, Rhyparochromidae, Scutelleridae, and Stenocephalidae species were recorded at the two areas from three fruit varieties. Among them, 27 species were recorded from hazelnut, 22 from cherry, and 19 from apple orchards. Pentatomid family was the most dominant (61%) in both studied areas, with a higher abundance of Miridae (21%) in the number of species. The species Palomena prasina (Linnaeus, 1761) (17%) and Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758) (16%) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) stood out for their abundance relevance during both years. The most economically significant pests were P. prasina, N. viridula, and A. amygdali from the Pentatomidae family, which feed on hazelnut, apple, and cherry, respectively. The values of the Margalef diversity index showed minor differences between fruit varieties: it was highest in cheerier than both other fruit varieties. The Shannon-Weaner diversity index varied between 2.58 and 4.85. The maximum species diversity was recorded in hazelnut, whereas the minimum level was observed in apples.


True bugs, communities, species richness, abundance, fruit varieties

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