Authors: MICHA? GESEK, RAJMUND SOKÓ?, BARRY LAMBERT, IWONA OTROCKA-DOMAGA?A
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation with Effective Microorganisms (EM) on the morphology and the morphometry of the intestine, and on proliferation activity of crypt cells in Japanese quails. The EM group (16 birds) received EM for 30 days in water (3 L/1000 L of water) and in feed (5 kg/1000 kg of feed) mixed with standard diet. The second group (16 birds) was established as the control group (no EM supplementation). Histopathological analysis revealed infiltration of lymphoid cells mainly in the duodenum and jejunum similarly in the EM and the control groups. The EM group showed irregular villus surfaces when compared to the control group. Morphometric analysis revealed significant differences in the EM group for villus width in the duodenum (186.0 μm to 170.7 μm; P ≤ 0.05), in crypt depth (129.2 ?m to 110.7 μm; P ≤ 0.05), muscular layer thickness in the jejunum (70.88 ?m to 57.44 ?m) (P ≤ 0.05), and muscular layer thickness in the ileum (76.88 ?m to 64.76 ?m; P ≤ 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen activity was similar for the EM and the control groups: in the duodenum 90.82% in the control group and 91.89% in the EM group, in the jejunum 93.32% in the control group and 94.53% in the EM group, and in the ileum 92.53% in the control group and 93.92% in the EM group. Supplementation with EM resulted in improved structure and functions of the villi and changed their surface, height, width, and crypt depth.
Keywords: Effective Microorganisms, histopathology, Japanese quail, morphometry
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