Possible variations in sunspot groups before flaring activity during solar cycles 23 and 24


Abstract: We investigated the possible morphological variations observed in sunspot groups on the day before flaring activity occurred between January 1996 and November 2014. We found that 77% of all flaring sunspot groups were large and complex (D, E, and F modified Zurich classes). In addition, the Zurich classification of A, B, and C class sunspot groups changed more than 50%, while the remaining groups (D, E, F, and H) did not change considerably before the flare activity. Results showed that there was a remarkable increase in the sunspot areas of groups D, E, and F; in contrast, the sunspot areas of groups A, B, C, and H showed a decrease before the flaring activity during the examined time period. Finally, the sunspot counts of groups A, C, and H showed a decrease, while groups B, D, E, and F showed an increase in the same period.

Keywords: Solar flare, sunspot evolution, sunspots

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