Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Background/aim: Smokeless tobacco has been associated with oral cavity cancer for several decades. The incidence of oral cavity cancer is higher in some parts of the world especially South and South-East Asia including Pakistan. The aim of current study was to evaluate the risk of oral cavity cancer among smokeless tobacco users in our country. Materials and methods: A case-control study was conducted between November 2016 and September 2017. Patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer receiving treatment were included as cases and the attendants of various cancer patients visiting the hospital during the study period were included in the study as controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and all reported P-values were considered significant at < 0.05. Results: The crude OR for the "ever smokeless tobacco users" among cases and controls came out to be 4.98 (95%CI; 2.76-9.01). The OR for snuff users among cases and controls was 4.82 (95%CI; 2.37-9.80) and that for betel leaf users was 4.42 (95%CI; 1.66-11.91) after adjusting for smoking and age. Conclusion: Our study provided strong evidence for snuff and betel leaf to be independent risk factors for oral cavity cancer.


Smokeless tobacco, risk, snuff, oral cavity

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