Detection of Helicobacter pylori by invasive tests in adult dyspeptic patients and antibacterial resistance to six antibiotics, including rifampicin in Turkey. Is clarithromycin resistance rate decreasing?


Abstract: Background/aim: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori is reported to be roughly 80% in Turkey, and only very few culture-based studies are available on antibacterial resistance in adult dyspeptic patients. This study was carried out in adult dyspeptic patients with an aim to: (i) detect H. pylori by invasive tests (culture, polymerase chain reaction, and histopathology) and (ii) determine the current resistance rates of H. pylori isolates to six antibiotics, including rifampicin. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in 422 adult dyspeptic patients. The presence of H. pylori was demonstrated by culture, polymerase chain reaction, and the histopathology of gastric biopsy material. Antibacterial susceptibility was determined with the E-test. Results: The mean age of the patients was 50 ± 15 (range 18-90), and 265 (63%) of them were female. By culture, polymerase chain reaction, and histopathology, the presence of H. pylori was detected at rates of 35% (148/422), 67% (281/422), and 53% (224/422), respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori was determined as 75.6% (319/422). Metronidazole, levofloxacin, clarithromycin, and rifampicin resistance rates were 62%, 36%, 19%, and 12%, respectively. Monodrug, dual-drug, and multidrug resistance rates were ascertained as 36.9%, 29.4%, and 10.5%, respectively. All of the isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline. Conclusion: This study revealed the current prevalence of H. pylori in adult dyspeptic patients as 75.6%, and thereby, showed that infection with this pathogen remains highly prevalent. Although resistance to metronidazole and levofloxacin has increased over time, clarithromycin resistance rate has decreased. The high levels of resistance to metronidazole and levofloxacin limit the empirical use of these antibiotics in the eradication protocol. Owing to the low level of resistance determined for rifampicin, this antibiotic could be included in the eradication protocol, in the event of the need for rescue therapy in Turkey.

Keywords: Antibacterial resistance, clarithromycin, Helicobacter pylori, invasive test, rifampicin, Turkey

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