Thiol-disulfide homeostasis: an integrated approach with biochemical and clinical aspects


Abstract: Dynamic thiol-disulfide homeostasis (TDH) is a new area has begun to attract more scrutiny. Dynamic TDH is reversal of thiol oxidation in proteins and represents the status of thiols (-SH) and disulfides (-S-S-). Organic compounds containing the sulfhydryl group is called thiol, composed of sulfur and hydrogen atoms. Disulfides are the most important class of dynamic, redox responsive covalent bonds build in between two thiol groups. For many years, thiol levels were analyzed by several methods. During last years, measurements of disulfide levels have been analyzed by a novel automated method, developed by Erel and Neselioglu. In this method, addition to thiol (termed as native thiol) levels, disulfide levels were also measured and sum of native thiol and disulfide levels were termed as total thiol. Therefore, TDH was begun to be understood in organism. In healthy humans, TDH is maintained within a certain range. Dysregulated dynamic TDH has been implicated several disorders with unknown etiology. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that the thiol-disulfide homeostasis is involved in variety diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, nonsmall cell lung cancer, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), inflammatory bowel diseases, occupational diseases, gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia. These results may elucidate some pathogenic mechanism or may be a predictor indicating diagnostic clue, prognostic marker or therapeutic sign. In conclusion, protection of the thiol-disulfide homeostasis is of great importance for the human being. Evidence achieved so far has proposed that thiol-disulfide homeostasis is an important issue needs to elucidate wholly.

Keywords: Thiol, disulfide, oxidant stress, thiol-disulfide homeostasis

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