Graft-versus-cancereffect and innovative approaches in thetreatment of refractory solid tumors


Abstract: Background/aim: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been used for the treatment of various refractory solid tumors during the last two decades. After the demonstration of graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect in a leukemic murine model following allo-HSCT from other strains of mice, graft-versus-tumor (GvT) effect in a solid tumor after allo-HSCT has also been reported in a murine model in 1984. Several trials have reported the presence of a GvT effect in patients with various refractory solid tumors, including renal, ovarian and colon cancers, as well as soft tissue sarcomas [1]. The growing data on haploidentical transplants also indicate GvT effect in some pediatric refractory solid tumors. Novel immunotherapy-based treatment modalities aim at inducing an allo-reactivity against the metastatic solid tumor via a GvT effect. Recipient derived immune effector cells (RDICs) in the antitumor reactivity following allo-HSCT have also been considered as an emerging therapy for advanced refractory solid tumors. Conclusion: This review summarizes the background, rationale, and clinical results of immune-based strategies using GvT effect for the treatment of various metastatic and refractory solid tumors, as well as innovative approaches such as haploidentical HSCT, CAR-T cell therapies and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL).

Keywords: Graft-versus-tumor effect, recipient derived immune effector cells, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, solid tumors

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