Authors: EBRU ATİKE ONGUN, OĞUZ DURSUN, AYŞE BERNA ANIL, ÜMÜT ALTUĞ, ÖZLEM TEMEL KÖKSOY, BAŞAKNUR AKYILDIZ, SERKAN ÖZSOYLU, TANIL KENDİRLİ, SERHAN ÖZCAN, RIZA DİNÇER YILDIZDAŞ, İLKNUR TOLUNAY, BÜLENT KARAPINAR, MEHMET ARDA KILINÇ, DEMET DEMİRKOL
Abstract: Background/aim: To characterize the clinical course of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and high flow humidified nasal cannula ventilation (HFNC) procedures; perform risk analysis for ventilation failure. Material and methods: This prospective, multi-centered, observational study was conducted in 352 PICU admissions (1 month-18 years) between 2016 and 2017. SPSS-22 was used to assess clinical data, define thresholds for ventilation parameters and perform risk analysis. Results: Patient age, onset of disease, previous intubation and hypoxia influenced the choice of therapy mode: NIPPV was preferred in older children (p = 0.002) with longer intubation (p < 0.001), ARDS (p = 0.001), lower respiratory tract infections (p < 0.001), chronic respiratory disease, (p = 0.005), malignancy (p = 0.048) and immune deficiency (p = 0.026). The failure rate was 13.4%. sepsis, ARDS, prolonged intubation, and use of nasal masks were associated with NIV failure (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.025). The call of intubation or re-intubation was given due to respiratory failure in twenty-seven (57.5%), hemodynamic instability in eight (17%), bulbar dysfunction or aspiration in 5 (10.6%), neurological deterioration in 4 (8.5%) and developing ARDS in 3 (6.4%) children. A reduction of less than 10% in the respiration within an hour increased the odds of failure by 9.841 times (OR: 9.841, 95% CI: 2.0021-48.3742). FiO2 > 55% at 6th hours and PRISM-3 >8 were other failure predictors. Of the 9.9% complication rate, the most common complication was pressure ulcerations (4.8%) and mainly observed when using full-face masks (p = 0.047). Fifteen (4.3%) patients died of miscellaneous causes. Tracheostomy cannulation was performed on 16 children due to prolonged mechanical ventilation (8% in NIPPV, 2.6% in HFNC) Conclusion: Absence of reduction in the respiration rate within an hour, FiO2 requirement >55% at 6th hours and PRISM-3 score >8 predict NIV failure.
Keywords: HFNC, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, children, respiratory failure.
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