Risk factors predicting the development of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome following gestational diabetes mellitus


Abstract: Background/aim: To determine risk factors associated with the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients 10 years after giving birth. Materials and methods: Medical records of patients with former GDM were screened. Eligible patients were invited to the hospital to obtain information about their present health status. Patients with pregestational diabetes and patients with multiple pregnancies were excluded. A total of 67 women formed the study group. American Diabetes Association (ADA) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were used to define T2DM and MetS, respectively. Results: A total of 27 patients developed diabetes (40.3%) and 35 patients (52%) developed MetS. T2DM developed, on average, 4.8 years after delivery. There was a significant difference between diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of insulin use during pregnancy (P < 0.001). Women who developed diabetes within 10 years after giving birth were observed to have significantly higher fasting plasma glucose on oral glucose tolerance test during their pregnancy (P = 0.007). Current and pregestational body mass indices had a significant effect on the development of MetS (P = 0.003 and P = 0.027, respectively). Conclusion: In this long-term study, we found that patients with high fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and insulin requirement during pregnancy are at an increased risk of developing T2DM, while pregestational obesity is predictive of progression to MetS. Identifying and targeting high-risk individuals may delay and possibly prevent T2DM and MetS.

Keywords: Diabetes, metabolic syndrome, gestational diabetes, insulin resistance

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