Potential Source Regions of Pollutants Measured in the Mediterranean and Black Sea Atmospheres


Abstract: Potential source regions of trace elements and major ions measured in the Mediterranean atmosphere were investigated by combining trajectory statistics with emission data reported in the literature. The frequency of air mass transport from different wind sectors was investigated at three selected sites in the eastern Mediterranean, western Mediterranean and Black Sea basins. The upper air mass movements showed fairly similar general features at all three sites, with very small eastern, southeastern and southern components. In all three sites, the dominant flows were from the western, northwestern and northern sectors. Although the general features of the upper air climatology were fairly similar in the western Mediterranean, eastern Mediterranean, and the Black Sea, there were small differences in the flow patterns in each subregion. There were small but statistically significant differences between summer and winter flow patterns. However, these differences were not large enough to explain the consistent seasonal differences in the concentrations of trace elements and major ions reported in the literature. The potential source regions of elements and ions were determined taking into account the residence times of air masses eventually reaching the three sub-basins and emissions. The potential source regions affecting pollutant concentrations in the western Mediterranean are distincly different from the source regions affecting the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea atmospheres. The comparison of potential source regions with those determined experimentally demonstrated that the wet and dry depositions of pollutants during transport from their source regions to the three sub-basins have a profound influence on their observed concentrations in the receptor areas.

Keywords: Mediterranean, Black Sea pollution, Atmosphere, Aerosol, Emissions, Trajectory statistics, Trace elements

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