Geological, geochemical, and fluid inclusion evidences for the origin of the Ravanj Pb?Ba?Ag deposit, north of Delijan city, Markazi Province, Iran


Abstract: The Lower Cretaceous sequences of the Ravanj anticline in Iran host the Ravanj Pb-Ba-Ag mineralization. Economic orebodies are restricted to the thrust zone within the brecciated massive limestone and immediately above the Jurassic shale and/or shale-limestone intercalations of the Lower Cretaceous. Paragenetic sequence and distinct zoning of mineral assemblages indicate that ore-forming fluid migrated through thrust zones along the NE-trending faults. The REE pattern of mineralized host rock is characterized by HREE-enrichment ((La/Lu)PAAS = 0.24). The Ce/Ce* ratio of mineralized host samples shows negative Ce anomalies, which is most likely inherited from seawater. The positive Eu/Eu* anomaly suggests high ?O2 during ore deposition. Negative Δ34S values of the Ravanj sulfide minerals (-27? to -11?) suggest bacteriogenic sulfate reduction, whereas positive Δ34S values of barite (+20?) fall in the range of Tertiary marine sulfates. Multiple isotopic sulfur sources of sulfides and sulfate minerals support mixing of a reduced negative isotopic sulfur-bearing fluid and a positive isotopic sulfate-bearing fluid. The average of homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions from the early and late-stage mineralization calcites are 165 and 160 °C, respectively. The salinity of fluid inclusions varies between 0.66 and 18 wt% NaCl equivalent with an outlier at 22.2. Wide variation in the salinity of fluid inclusions can be explained by fluid mixing between a higher salinity group with 14-18 wt% NaCl equivalent and a lower salinity group with 0.66-8 wt% NaCl equivalent. In the Ravanj, fine grained sulfide minerals are consistent with a sulfur supersaturated fluid. High concentrations of Pb can be present in oxidized, chlorine-bearing fluids if the concentration of total H2S is very low. Therefore, mixing of two geochemically different fluids could precipitate both galena and barite. These data show that the Ravanj Pb-Ba-Ag deposit is comparable with Pb-rich Mississippi Valley-type deposits such as the Viburnum Trend district in the USA.

Keywords: Ravanj Pb?Ba?Ag deposit, rare earth elements, multiple isotopic sulfur sources, microthermometry, fluid mixing

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