Authors: GÜLŞAH ÇONGUR
Abstract: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is an auxinic herbicide used to control broadleaf weeds. It is also a threatening factor for not only aquatic life but also human health due to its genotoxicity and endocrine disruptive property. Herein, the interaction between 2,4-D and double stranded DNA was investigated by using single-use pencil graphite electrodes (PGE) in combination with electrochemical techniques. The detection mechanism was based on the monitoring of the changes at the guanine oxidation signal obtained before/after surface-confined interaction of 2,4-D and DNA at the surface of PGE. The electrochemical characterization of the interaction was studied by using microscopic and electrochemical techniques. The response obtained by interaction in the presence of another herbicide, glyphosate, which is widely used with 2,4-D for weed control, was compared to the one occurred in the presence of 2,4-D. Electrochemical monitoring of the interaction between the herbicide whose active molecule was 2,4-D and DNA was also investigated. The detection (LOD) and quantification limits (LOQ) for 2,4-D and the herbicide could be obtained in the linear concentration ranges of 30-70 μg/mL and 10-30 μg/mL, respectively and LOD and LOQ values were found to be 2.85 and 9.50 μg/ mL for both 2,4-D and the herbicide. The sensitivity of the biosensor was calculated as 0.087 μA.mL / μg.cm2 .This is the first study in literature by means of not only voltammetric detection of 2,4-D and DNA interaction but also the herbicide-DNA interaction at the surface of PGE based on the changes at the guanine signal.
Keywords: DNA-herbicide interaction, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, pencil graphite electrode, voltammetric analysis, electrochemical characterization, microscopic characterization
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