Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the isolation and HPLC-DAD determination of three major capsaicinoids in Capsicum annuum L.


Abstract: Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-diodearray detector (HPLC-DAD) for the extraction and quantitation of three major capsaicinoids (i.e. capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nordihydrocapsaicin) from pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Chloroform (extraction solvent, 100 μL), acetonitrile (disperser solvent, 1250 μL) and 30 s extraction time were found optimum. The analytes were back-extracted into 300 μL of 50 mM sodium hydroxide/ methanol, 45/55% (v/v), within 15 s before being injected into the instrument. Enrichment factors ranged from 3.3 to 14.7 and limits of detection from 5.0 to 15.0 μg g$^{-1}$. Coefficients of determination (R$^{2}$) and %RSD were higher than 0.9962 and lower than 7.5%, respectively. The proposed method was efficiently applied for the extraction and quantitation of the three capsaicinoids in six cultivars of Capsicum annuum L. with percentage relative recoveries in the range of 92.0%-108.0%. DLLME was also scaled up for the isolation of the three major capsaicinoids providing purity greater than 98.0% as confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, which significantly reduced the extraction time and organic solvent consumption.

Keywords: Capsaicin, Capsicum annuum L., dihydrocapsaicin, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, nordihydrocapsaicin

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