Morphological, chemical, and molecular analyses of Turkish Papaver accessions (Sect. Oxytona)


Abstract: The species of the section Oxytona Bernh., classified under the genus Papaver L., are of great importance due to their medical alkaloid contents such as morphine, codeine, and thebaine. A clearly established classification system is not available for Oxytona species. The aim of this study was to find relationships among 53 accessions belonging to 3 important Oxytona species, i.e. Papaver bracteatum Lindl., P. orientale L., and P. pseudo-orientale (Fedde) Medw., using 19 different morphological characters, 1 chemical character, and 15 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Nineteen characters, including bract and sepal leaves, petal marks, and capsule shape and size were analysed, and distinct morphological differences among accessions were identified. The thebaine content of the accessions was determined via HPLC analysis. Of the 53 accessions, 21 contained thebaine alkaloid ranging from trace amounts to 2.5% and the rest contained no thebaine. RAPD-PCR markers were used for analysis of accessions at molecular level. A total of 81 of bands generated by 15 successful RAPD-PCR reactions were detected as polymorphic. The polymorphism rate was approximately 85%. The combination of morphological, chemical, and molecular marker analyses resulted in a better classification for the section Oxytona.

Keywords: Papaver, Oxytona, PCR, RAPD, HPLC

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