In vitro and in vivo germination of Cyclamen alpinum seeds


Abstract: Cyclamen trochopteranthum O.Schwarz has a confusing history, having been identified in the last part of the 19^{th} century and described as Cyclamen alpinum Sprenger. It remained known as C. alpinum until 1975, when it was described as C. trochopteranthum by Otto Schwarz. Cyclamen trochopteranthum is a species distributed in the south-western part of Turkey, but the C. trochopteranthum described in 1975 is today describe again as Cyclamen alpinum. The seeds of this species were collected from red pine forests in the Gökbel-Dalyan area on May 3-7 and stored with and without capsules in incubators at 20 °C. Among the seeds that were sown 5-6 months later (October-November), the germination rate was 35% at 15 °C and 47% at 20 °C in October. Germination increased to 80% at 15 °C and 87% at 20 °C in November. The highest germination rate was observed in December (95%) and these seeds had been stored for 8 months. Seeds that were stored for 8 months (using different storage methods) were subjected to in vitro and in vivo germination tests at 15 °C and 20 °C. Seed storage method (in capsules and out of capsules) did not have a significant effect on in vitro germination in Murashige-Skoog medium, but storing seeds in capsules had a significant effect on germination on filter paper and in vivo (mixtures of peat, perlite, and sand). In darkness at 15 and 20 °C high germination rates were obtained, both in vitro and in vivo (in vitro at 15 and 20 °C, max. 95%; in vivo at 15 °C, max. 73%; at 20 °C, max. 93%); however, at 15 °C germination was faster (after the first 20 days at 15 °C, max. 95%; at 20 °C, 73%). The highest germination rate was obtained after 8-9 months of storage (in vitro average, 94%; in vivo average, 83%). A mixture of peat + perlite + sand in equal parts was a suitable in vivo germination medium (93% germination) for C. alpinum.

Keywords: Cyclamen alpinum, C. trochopteranthum, seed germination, seed storage

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