Antimicrobial and antiviral effects of essential oils from selected Umbelliferae and Labiatae plants and individual essential oil components


Abstract: The essential oils obtained from Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare collected at fully-mature and flowering stages, Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Lavandula officinalis, Ocimum basilicum (green- and purple-leaf varieties), Origanum onites, O. vulgare, O. munitiflorum, O. majorana, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, and Satureja cuneifolia, as well as the widely encountered components in essential oils (\gamma-terpinene, 4-allylanisole, (-)-carvone, dihydrocarvone, D-limonene, (-)-phencone, cuminyl alcohol, cuminyl aldehyde, cuminol, trans-anethole, camphene, isoborneol, (-)-borneol, L-bornyl acetate, 2-decanol, 2-heptanol, methylheptane, farnesol, nerol, isopulegol, citral, citronellal, citronellol, geraniol, geranyl ester, linalool, linalyl oxide, linalyl ester, \alpha-pinene, \beta-pinene, piperitone, (-)-menthol, isomenthone, carvacrol, thymol, vanillin, and eugenol), were screened for their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) and parainfluenza type-3 (PI-3). Cytotoxicity was expressed as cytopathogenic effect. Most of the oils and compounds displayed strong antiviral effects against HSV-1, ranging between 0.8 and 0.025 µg mL^-^1. However, the samples tested were less effective against PI-3, with results ranging between 1.6 and 0.2 µg mL^-^1. The essential oil of A. graveolens was the most active. Most of the tested oils and compounds exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal effects.

Keywords: Essential oil, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxicity

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