Authors: AHMET ONAY, ABDULSELAM ERTAŞ, VEYSEL SÜZERER, İSMAİL YENER, MUSTAFA ABDULLAH YILMAZ, EMİNE AYAZ TİLKAT, REMZİ EKİNCİ, NESRİN BOZHAN, SEVGİ İRTEGÜN
Abstract: To combat the coronaviruses and their novel variants, therapeutic drugs and the development of vaccines that are to be effective throughout human life are urgently needed. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) acts as a modulator in the activation of the microcirculation, immune system, and autonomic nervous system, along with controlling pharmacological functions such as emotional responses, homeostasis, motor functions, cognition, and motivation. The ECS contains endogenous cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptor (CBRs), and enzymes that regulate their biosynthesis, transport, and degradation. Moreover, phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the action of endocannabinoids also play an essential role in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoids, the main constituents of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.), are therapeutic compounds that have received international attention in the health field due to their therapeutic properties. Recently, they have been tested for the treatment of COVID-19 due to their antiviral properties. Indeed, cannabinoid-type compounds, and in particular cannabidiol (CBD), isolated from glandular trichomes found in the calyx of cannabis flowers with reported antiviral properties is hypothesized to be a therapeutic option in the ministration of SARS-CoV-2 consorted with COVID-19 disease. The relevant articles were determined from the database search published mainly in Web of Science, Google scholar, PubMed, Crossref, and ClinicalTrials.gov database during the pandemic period. The articles were evaluated for the therapeutic potentials, mechanisms of action of cannabinoids, the roles of the ECS in the immune system, impact of cannabinoids in SARS-CoV-2 septic, especially if they address the application of cannabinoids as drugs for the curability and management of SARSCoV- 2 and its novel variants. Although the evidence needed to be considered using cannabinoids in the control and treatment of viral diseases is currently in its infancy, they already offer an opportunity for clinicians due to their effects in relieving pain, improving appetite, and improving childhood epilepsy, especially in cancer and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS) patients. In addition to these, the most recent scientific evidence emphasizes their use in the treatment of the coronavirus infected patients. In brief, all preclinic and clinic studies that have been reported show that, through the cannabinoid system, cannabinoids, particularly CBD, have many mechanisms that are effective in the treatment of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. Thus, more extensive studies are necessary in this area to fully identify the effects of cannabinoids on SARS-CoV-2.
Keywords: Antiviral, cannabidiol, cannabinoids, cannabinoid system, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2
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