Authors: İDRİS MACİT, GREGORY A. LANG, HÜSNÜ DEMİRSOY
Abstract: As the production benefits of pruning fruit trees have been realized, growers have begun pruning periodically and, accordingly, various canopy training systems have begun to be developed. Following the genetic development of dwarfing rootstocks, interest has grown in the creation of modern training systems for smaller, more efficient orchards. During the formation of these training systems, it became apparent that branches of a certain size can alter the partitioning of growth resources (nutrients and carbohydrates) within the tree, delaying the formation of the target canopy structure as well as fruit bearing. In recent years, studies have focused on management of the buds related to branch development. Bud management describes such practices as debudding and selection of specific buds to promote the growth of the tree to achieve its most productive, efficient structure. This study determined the effectiveness of bud management for sweet cherry trees. The variety/rootstock combinations of 0900 Ziraat / M x M 60, Sweetheart / M x M 60, 0900 Ziraat / Gisela 5, and Regina / Gisela 6 were studied using bud management techniques, with the Vogel Central Leader training system as a control. The study was carried out in Samsun, Turkey, between 2010 and 2014. In the experiment, phenological observations (such as bud burst, first and full bloom, and harvest date) and tree values (such as shoot diameter and height; diameter, height, and number of the first branches from the trunk, amount of pruned branch mass; diameter and height of a 1-year-old shoot; number of 2-year-old or older shoots; volume of the tree canopy; and production values) were determined. Bud management resulted in homogeneous branching along the leader, less empty space in the canopy, healthy canopy formation in a shorter period, shorter and more uniform branches, an increase in 2-year-old shoots that could yield fruit, and trees that reached maximum productivity earlier.
Keywords: Bud management, bud selection, pruning, training, phenology, sweet cherry
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