Authors: TANER YILDIZ
Abstract: This study was completed with the aim of determining labor requirements, work efficiencies, and total costs of 6 different traditional hazelnut pick-up methods, along with 3 different mechanical harvest methods using a portable-type pneumatic hazelnut harvesting machine, on flat ground in two hazelnut orchards with linear and brush planting systems. Trials were conducted in the two different orchards in the August 2013 harvesting season. Among traditional pick-up methods, the lowest unit of human labor requirements (units of human labor power, h ha-1) in an orchard with a linear planting system was obtained (180.17 h ha-1) for the method involving Ethrel administration, hand-shaking, and rows gathered by garden rake (first method). For the brush-planting system orchard, the lowest value (157.39 h ha-1) was obtained with the method with no Ethrel administration, hand-shaking, and rows gathered by scrub rake (fourth method). In terms of work efficiencies, the best values were obtained (0.0056 ha h-1) for the first method for the linear system and for the third method for the brush system (0.0058 ha h-1). In terms of time utilization coefficient, the different pick-up methods with the hazelnut harvesting machine obtained lower levels compared to the different traditional hazelnut pick-up methods. In trials of different methods of traditional pick-up, the lowest value for total harvest costs was obtained for the method with Ethrel administered and rows gathered by garden rake in the linear system (first method) (6666.29 Turkish lira (TL) ha-1). For the brush-planting system the lowest value was for the fourth method with 5283.43 TL ha-1. In the brush-planting system with the mechanical pick-up method, the lowest value was 1637.42 TL ha-1 for the pick-up method with rows gathered by garden rake (third method). Amounts of hazelnuts obtained per unit of time for traditional methods were 5.25 kg h-1 for the first method in linear planting and 4.49 kg h-1 for the third method in the brush-planting system. For hazelnut harvesting machine pick-up, the amount was 35.40 kg h-1 for pick-up with rows gathered by garden rake (third method). Accordingly, the hazelnut harvesting machine can collect the amount that 6.74 people can collect traditionally.
Keywords: Hazelnut, labor requirements, mechanical harvesting, total costs, traditional harvesting, work efficiency
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