Water Losses From Different Soil Types Planted to Various Crops

Authors: Rıza KANBER, Atilla YAZAR, Harun KÖKSAL, Sermet ÖNDER, Mustafa ÜNLÜ, Ruhi BAŞTUĞ

Abstract: A study was conducted in a drainage type lysimeter system with reconstructed soil profile for evaluating water loss components which affect irrigation management in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Deep percolation and evaporation losses were greatly influenced by rainfall, irrigation, tillage, root depth and soil type (especially percolation). Deep percolotion from the bare soil with uncultivated treatments was 62% higher than bare cultivated and cropped surfaces. Total percolation loss varied from 13 to 26 % of the winter rainfall in cropped treatments, whereas in bare soil treatments it ranged from 21 to 44 %. Average evaporation from bare soil surface in uncultivated treatments was 12-14 percent lower than that ini cultivated treatments for Arıklı (ARK), and ‹ncirlik (INC) soil series, howewer, evaporation in the cultivated treatment was 5 percent higher than that of uncultivated treatment. On the average, total evaporation in all the soil series considered ranged from 63 to 79 percent of the irrigation water applied. The highest Et was estimated in alfaalfa with an average of 1700 mm for whole year in ARP and INC series. The lowest Et was obtained in leek with 228 mm in ARK. Higher Et occured in ARP and INC soil series in which plant were taller than those in ARK soil series. According to the crop yields level, the soil series ranked as ARP, ARK, and INC. Generally, higher yields of almost all crops were obtained from the ARP soil series (p