Authors: BERKEN ÇİMEN
Abstract: The present study reports on the isolation of viable protoplast from ovule-derived embryogenic calli of Volkameriana (Citrus volkameriana L.), which is a rootstock in high demand for lemon production.Ovules of C. Volkameriana isolated at 3 different immature fruit stages, comprising4, 8, and 12 weeks after anthesis (WAA), were cultured on5 different media in order to produce embryogenic callus lines as a source material for protoplast isolation. EME medium (MT basal medium + 0.5 gL-1 malt extract), with the addition of phytohormones [kinetin (KIN), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP)] at different concentrations, were tested for callogenesis. According to 2-way ANOVA, significant effects were determined as a result of the immature fruit stage and type of culture media (P ≤ 0.01) on the callogenesis and embryogenic callus induction frequency. First, callus formation was recorded after 4 WAA on medium comprising EME + 2,4-D (1.0 mg L-1) + BAP (0.5 mg L-1). Callus induction frequency was the highest (90.00%) in the same culture medium when the ovules wereculturedat8 WAA. In addition, culturing the ovules isolated from 12 WAA immature fruits of C. Volkameriana resulted in the highest indirect somatic embryogenesis (24%). Embryogenic callus initiation was the highest (25.56%) using EME + KIN (1.0 mg L-1) and ovules cultured at 8 WAA (14%) resulted in the highest embryogenic callus formation. Effects of different enzyme concentrations on the efficiency of protoplast isolation were calculated using the hemocytometer cell counting method. The combination of 2% cellulase and 0.2% pectinase gave the highest numbers of protoplasts, at 12.33 × 105 protoplast/mL. Embryogenic callus lines obtained by culturing ovules of C. Volkameriana yielded high-quality protoplasts after isolation and could be useful as a protoplast source for further somatic hybridization studies.
Keywords: Citrus, rootstock, embryogenic callus, protoplast isolation
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