Sterility and Abortive Effects of the Commercial Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) Extract NeemAzal- T/S^{®} on Female Rat (Rattus norvegicus)


Abstract: Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (neem) is an important plant species with reported reversible infertility and spontaneous abortive properties. NeemAzal-T/S^{®} 1% was fed to 3 experimental groups by stomach intubation (5, 15, 25 mg/kg) for 6 days and the control group given tap water. Hematological parameters were determined on days 4 and 9 of the experiment. On day 10, animals were studied for histopathological changes of uterus. The rest were tested for fertility. On day 7 of the pregnancy, the experimental groups were fed with 3 doses of NeemAzal-T/S^{®} and tap water (control) for 6 days. There were significant increase in the hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in all groups and RBC count in the first and second group on day 9 in the treated animals compared with the control. There was a significant decrease in the progesterone level only in the second group on day 9. Reproduction occurred after 40 and 75 days in the first and the second group, respectively. In the third group, half of the animals died and reproduction occurred after 3 months in the rest. Histopathological results of the uterus indicated papilloma in the endometrium, proliferation in surface layer and secretory cells with circular nucleus, and clear cytoplasm, which increased in the animals treated with higher doses. Based on the results of this study, it appears that NeemAzal-T/S^{®} could be used as a natural and comparatively safe infertility agent to control harmful rodents.

Keywords: Neem extract, sterility, abortion, histopathology, hematology, progesterone

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